Test challenges for PAM4 signals: Page 3 of 3

February 08, 2016 //By David Maliniak
Test challenges for PAM4 signals
David Maliniak of Teledyne LeCroy considers the various test challenges associated with PAM4 signals.
need to know where to place it vertically. Eye height at a given BER is another critical parameter.

Lastly, somewhat new for PAM4 in contrast to NRZ is the notion of linearity. In NRZ, there are only the two amplitude levels to worry about while PAM4 gives us these two intermediary amplitude levels. Are the distances a, b, and c the same so that the levels are evenly spaced and we have maximum openings for all three eyes? Does a = b = c? That's what is meant by "linearity" in the context of PAM4.

That's a quick rundown of the test and measurement challenges raised by the advent of PAM4 signaling.

Read parts 1 and 2 of this series here:

    The fundamentals of PAM4
    PAM4 test setups vary with applications

Design category: 

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